Ariely (2009) suggests that people being irrational beings, often don’t know what they want until they see it in context. Projects that have defined a large batch of feature requirements up front with the users often find that once delivered and people have had the opportunity to use the features, additional requirements or changes to those requirements are subsequently requested.
Argyris observes that when single-loop learning outcomes go wrong, individuals become defensive and shift the blame onto others. This defensiveness limits the ability of individuals to learn, and he makes the point that doubt and debate are needed to promote learning. In double-loop learning, he suggests that assumptions are to be challenged, and hypotheses should be tested.
In Tsoukas (2002) commentary of Argyris' work, he suggests that double-loop (or reflexive) learning is much more relevant in post-bureaucratic organisations, because individuals are more psychologically present in companies that are rich in information, and where employees are required to make more day-to-day decisions based on that information.
We can address this problem and take cognitive bias out of the equation to some extent, through working in short feedback loops, using an iterative process to test the success or failure of the experiments undertaken through empirical evidence.
Deming (1986) presents the Shewhart Cycle as a flow for improving a product or process. The Shewhart Cycle defines the steps as plan–do–check–act (or later revised to plan–do–study–act), as a continuous improvement through an iterative process.
Ries, E. (2011). The lean startup: How today's entrepreneurs use continuous innovation to create radically successful businesses. Random House LLC.
Ariely, D (2009), Predictably Irrational: The Hidden Forces that Shape Our Decisions.
Argyris, C. (1991). Teaching smart people how to learn. Tsoukas (2002) Harvard business review
Tversky, A; Kahneman, D (1973), Availability: A Heuristic for Judging Frequency and Probability, Cognitive Psychology
Deming, W. E. (1986). Out of the crisis. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Center for Advanced Engineering Study, 6.